Tag: itching

What to Do If a Mosquito Bites Your Child

Mosquito bites aren't good, but you don't have to get panicked about them.
Mosquito bites aren’t good, but you usually don’t have to get panicked about them.

Depending on where you live, a mosquito bite can be just a nuisance or it can lead to a life-threatening disease. From Chikungunya virus to Zika, most parents have learned to fear mosquito-borne diseases and because they hear about them so much, fear or even get panicked over mosquito bites.

While it is good to prepared and learn to avoid mosquito bites, you likely shouldn’t be panicked.

But even if your kids aren’t at risk for a mosquito-borne disease, it’s no fun getting bit by mosquitoes. Mosquito bites are itchy, and even when bites don’t get infected, they can leave behind crusted scabs that kids continue to pick at, over and over again.

Still no reason for panic or fear – just good reasons to learn to avoid mosquito bites.

Mosquitoes and Mosquito-Borne Diseases

Diseases that can be spread from the bite of a mosquito can include:

  • Chikungunya – can develop fever and severe and debilitating joint pain 3-7 days after a mosquito bite from Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes in countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific Oceans, Caribbean countries, and most recently, in Florida, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
  • Dengue – can cause severe flu like symptoms, including fever, severe headache, eye pain, joint and muscle pain, rash, and bleeding, after a mosquito bite in one of at least 100 endemic countries, including many popular tourist destinations in Latin America, Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands. While there are cases in the US, it is important to keep in mind that “nearly all dengue cases reported in the 48 continental states were acquired elsewhere by travelers or immigrants.”
  • Eastern Equine encephalitis – a very rare disease, which is fortunate, as it is one of the most deadly of the mosquito-borne diseases. Transmission is in and around swampy areas, with most cases in Florida, Georgia, Massachusetts, and New Jersey.
  • Filariasis – spread by repeated mosquito bites over months to years, this disease is still found in at least 73 countries in parts Asia, Africa, the Western Pacific, and parts of the Caribbean and South America, these parasitic worms can grow and live in our lymph system
  • Japanese encephalitis – you can get a Japanese encephalitis virus infection after being bit by an infected Culex species mosquito in one of 24 countries in South-East Asia and the Western Pacific, especially if you are not vaccinated.
  • La Crosse encephalitis – rare, but can occur in the upper Midwestern and mid-Atlantic and southeastern states and can cause severe disease, including encephalitis, in children.
  • Malaria – although malaria was eliminated in the US in the early 1950s, we still see about 1,700 cases each year in returning travelers. That’s because malaria is a still a big problem around the world, from certain some states in Mexico to most of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
  • St. Louis encephalitis – can occur in eastern and central states, starts with mild symptoms, but can very rarely (between 1 to 12 cases a year) progress to encephalitis (inflammation of the brain).
  • West Nile – has now been found in every state except Alaska and Hawaii, but up to 80% of people don’t develop any symptoms and only 1% develop severe symptoms, with folks over age 60 years most at risk. Although West Nile season peaks in mid-August, cases are usually reported from late summer through early fall.
  • Western Equine encephalitis – rare, but deadly, like Eastern Equine encephalitis, and is found in states west of the Mississippi River
  • Yellow fever – a vaccine-preventable disease, the Yellow fever virus is still found in tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa.
  • Zika – is mostly a risk during pregnancy as it can cause serious birth defects, including microcephaly, so there are warnings to avoid high risk areas, which in addition to multiple countries and territories around the world, includes Brownsville, Texas and previously included Miami-Dade County, Florida

Won’t a long list of diseases get parent’s panicked? Only if they skip the part about where the mosquitoes that cause those diseases are active.

What to Do If a Mosquito Bites Your Child

Original Title: DPD_A.freeborni_861sRGB
 Do you know what to do if a mosquito bites your child? Photo by James Gathany

If a mosquito bites your child, don’t panic. There is no reason to run to your pediatrician or the ER and get tested for West Nile or Zika.

That’s not to say a mosquito bite couldn’t send you to the ER, but it would likely only be if your child was severely allergic, with the bite causing an anaphylatic reaction. Fortunately, most bites just leave little red bumps that go away in a few days if you don’t scratch them too much.

So the key treatment after a mosquito bite is classically about relieving the symptoms of itching. As with other itchy rashes, you can do this by:

  • applying an OTC anti-itch cream (hydrocortisone cream or calamine lotion) to the bite
  • taking an oral antihistamine, especially at night
  • applying a prescription steroid cream to help control itching

Also, keep your child’s finger nails short to minimize damage from scratching and wash the areas with soap and water to decrease the risk of secondary infections.

“Where you live, your travel history, and the travel history of your sex partner(s) can affect your chances of getting Zika.”

CDC on Know Your Zika Risk

In general, you should see your pediatrician if you have the symptoms of a mosquito-borne disease and have been in an area with risk of that disease.

Should you worry about dengue, West Nile, or Zika, etc?

  • Does your child live in an area where you can commonly find the mosquitoes that carry any of these diseases?
  • Did your child recently visit an area where you can commonly find the mosquitoes that carry any of these diseases?
  • Is your child a pregnant teen?
  • Is your teen sexually active?
  • Does your child have a chronic medical condition, such as cancer, diabetes, hypertension, or kidney disease?
  • Is your child a first- or second-generation immigrant from a malaria-endemic country who returned to their home country to visit friends and relatives?
  • Was your child at risk for a mosquito-borne disease and skipped taking preventative medications for malaria or skipped getting a Japanese encephalitis vaccine or a Yellow fever vaccine?

Again, see your pediatrician if your child had a mosquito bite and now has the symptoms of a mosquito-borne disease after being in an area with risk of that disease. This is especially important for anyone who is pregnant or with a chronic medical problem, as they might be at higher risk for severe disease. The elderly are more at risk too.

Preventing Mosquito Bites

Of course, whether you are traveling to the tropics or going for a walk in your neighborhood, your best bet is going to be trying to avoid mosquitoes and mosquito bites in the first place.

  • use insect repellent, which can protect your kids from tick bites too
  • wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants when possible
  • get rid of standing water around your home – places where mosquitoes can breed
  • make sure windows and doors have screens or are kept shut to keep mosquitoes out of your home
  • instead of insect repellent, consider using mosquito netting to cover your infant’s stroller or carrier when outside, and especially when in high risk parts of the world, using insecticide treated bed nets

And review travel advisories before planning a trip to see if you need to take any additional precautions to avoid a mosquito-borne disease.

What to Know About Mosquitoes and Mosquito Bites

Mosquito-borne diseases, like dengue, West Nile, and Zika, can certainly be serious, but you likely don’t need to panic your child has gotten one of them every time he or she gets a mosquito bite.

More About Mosquitoes and Mosquito Bites

What to Do If a Spider Bites Your Child

It can often seem like spiders are everywhere, and when you consider that more than 100,000 species of spiders have been identified, they probably are.

A black widow spider is typically easy to identify because of the classic markings on its body.
A black widow spider is typically easy to identify because of the classic markings on its body. Photo by Vincent Iannelli, MD

Even with only 4,000 species of spiders in North America, that’s a lot of spiders.

And believe it or not, that’s a good thing. All of those spiders eat up to 800 million metric tons of insects each year!

Fortunately, very few of these spiders are dangerous.

In the Unites States, just two species of spiders are poisonous enough to cause harm. They include the black widow spider (Latrodectus mactans) and the brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa).

Even in other parts of the world that have more of a variety of venomous spiders, like Australia, that “reputation is bigger than its bite.”

It is important to remember than even venomous black widow and brown recluse spiders aren’t wandering around your house trying to attack your kids. They usually like to live in places where they won’t be disturbed. So unless your child was crawling through boxes in a closet or attic, or some other place where they might have disturbed a spider, it is unlikely that any bites on their skin were caused by a “bad spider.”

And in most cases, any “bite marks” probably weren’t caused by a spider at all, as many experts think that spider bites are over-diagnosed. Many other conditions, including other insect bites and skin infections can mimic spider bites.

Symptoms of a Spider Bite

Surprisingly, most spider bites aren’t that painful. Although it may feel like a pin prick, many bites often go unnoticed, making it hard to know if you have been bitten.

Common spider bite symptoms can include a single bite mark with:

  • swelling
  • redness
  • itching
  • pain

In fact, most spider bites will resemble a bee sting. Your child may also develop hives and other allergy symptoms if they are allergic to the spider bite.

Symptoms of a black widow spider bite cold include severe muscle pain and cramps, which develop within a few hours of the bite. Other symptoms might include weakness, vomiting, trouble breathing, abdominal pain, and high blood pressure.

Brown recluse spider bites can be painful. In addition to pain, these spider bites might cause burning and itching. Another characteristic finding is that the spider bite may look like a bull’s eye, with a red ring around a white center that turns into an ulcer.

Was Your Child Really Bitten By a Spider?

The most obvious way to diagnose a spider bite is to see the spider biting your child.

Keep in mind that since many of us have spiders in and around our homes, simply seeing a spider and then noticing a bite on your child doesn’t necessarily mean that your child has a spider bite.

As hard as it sometimes is to tell if a child even has a spider bite, it can be even harder to determine what type of spider actually bit him. Again, seeing the spider can help, as “bad spiders” have very characteristic features.

The black widow spider is jet black, with a red hourglass marking on the underside of their abdomen. Brown recluse spiders are smaller, are yellowish-tan to dark brown, and have a violin shaped marking on their back.

Should you try to catch a spider to help your doctor identify it? Probably not, as you are more likely to bring your pediatrician a crushed spider that is impossible to identify than anything useful. And you should likely be concentrating on taking care of your child after he has been bitten, instead of chasing after the spider.

What to Do If a Spider Bites Your Child

For most spider bites, you can follow some simple home treatments, including:

  • washing the spider bite with soap and water
  • apply an ice cube to the bite for about 20 minutes
  • giving your child a pain medicine, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Motrin or Advil)
  • applying a topical antibiotic ointment to the bite two or three times a day
  • applying a topical steroid cream to help control itching and redness a few times a day
  • continuing home treatments for one or two days, the typical time that it takes a spider bite to go away

Of course, you should seek medical attention if you think your child was bitten by a black widow spider or brown recluse spider, or if any spider bite seems like it is getting infected, with increasing redness and pain after a few days.

Don’t overlook the fact that your local poison control center (1-800-222-1222) can be a good resource if you think your child was bitten by a poisonous spider.

What to Know About Spider Bites and Kids

Other things to know about spider bites include that:

  • Even the poisonous black widow spiders and brown recluse spiders rarely cause life-threatening symptoms or death.
  • In addition to seeking medical attention for a black widow spider or brown recluse spider bite, see your pediatrician if a spider bite isn’t getting better in a few days.
  • Kids may need a tetanus shot after a spider bite.
  • Spiders usually bite just once, so if a child has multiple bites, then it likely isn’t from a spider.
  • Although parents often look for the double fang marks in trying to identify a spider bite, they usually aren’t seen, and even when you see “fang marks,” it doesn’t mean that your child was bitten by a spider.
  • Instead of a black widow or brown recluse, it is more likely that you will come across a more harmless spider in or around your home, like a grass spider, wolf spider, orb weaver, or daddy-long-legs.

Most importantly, teach your kids to avoid spiders by shaking out shoes and clothing that are lying on the floor and not storing boxes or other items on the closet floor or underneath your child’s bed. You can help keep spiders out of your child’s crib or bed by making sure any bedding doesn’t touch the floor.

And remember that spiders eat insects, so might help keep your kids free of other types of bites.

More About Spiders and Spider Bites

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Safe and Effective Insect Repellents for Kids

While other measures are important too, insect repellents are typically the best way to protect your kids from biting insects and ticks.
While other measures are important too, insect repellents are typically the best way to protect your kids from biting insects and ticks. Photo by James Gathany.

As we become more and more aware of diseases that can spread from the bites of insects and ticks, it becomes important that we learn to protect our kids. Plus, itchy bites can turn into nasty scabs that your kids pick at over and over, leaving scars that might even get infected.

What should you do?

Insect Repellents for Kids

In addition to simply trying to avoid mosquitoes and ticks, which can be difficult, especially as your kids get older and spend more time outside, you should learn to protect them with insect repellents.

Are insect repellents safe for kids?

Despite all of the warning about chemicals and toxic pesticides that you might read on the internet, the answer is of course they are. In fact, many insect repellents can even be used on infants as young as age two months. And it is certainly better than your kids getting Chikungunya, Dengue, Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, West Nile, or Zika. Or MRSA from an infected bite.

You do have to use them correctly though.

Choosing a Safe and Effective Insect Repellent

If they are using the new EPA label, your insect repellent will tell you how long it will protect your kids against mosquitoes and ticks.
If using the new EPA label, your insect repellent will tell you how long it will protect your kids against mosquitoes and ticks.

Which insect repellent should you use?

Although traditionally insect repellents with DEET have long been “considered the best defense against biting insects,” the CDC has now said that some other DEET-free alternative insect repellents may work as well as lower dose DEET, including those with 2-undecanone, Picaridin, IR3535, oil of lemon eucalyptus, and 2% soybean oil.

Of course, that has led to a lot of new insect repellents on store shelves these days. And to a lot of confused parents trying to decide which is the best for their kids.

Don’t be one of them.

When choosing one of these insect repellents, start with the fact that none should be used on infants under two months of age and products containing oil of lemon eucalyptus should not be used on children under age three years. Otherwise, choose the product best suited to your child’s needs, especially considering that:

  • no protection insect repellents should be avoided (garlic, vitamin B1, bug zappers, insect repellent wristbands)
  • shorter protection insect repellents last about two hours (less than 10% DEET, essential oils, 2-undecanone)
  • medium protection insect repellents last about 3 to 4 hours (20% DEET, 7% Picaridin)
  • longer protection insect repellents last about 5 hours or more (24% DEET, 15% Picaridin)

In addition to the active ingredient and it’s strength (how long it lasts), you can now decide if you want an insect repellent that sprays on smooth and dry and isn’t greasy, has a light, tropical scent, or is unscented. Or instead of a spray (pump or aerosol), you can even choose insect repellent wipes or a lotion.

Do keep in mind that the CDC advises that products above 30% DEET reportedly do not provide any extra protection, although it doesn’t keep stores from selling sprays with as much as 100% DEET. For other products, those with higher concentrations of DEET aren’t necessarily stronger, they simply provide longer protection.

So if you are going for a walk around the neighborhood with your preschoolers, some good choices might be:

  • Avon Skin-So-Soft Bug Guard Plus Towelettes (IR3535)
  • BioUD Spray (2-undecanone)
  • Buzz Away Spray (Citronella oil)
  • Cutter All Family Spray (7% DEET)
  • Cutter Lemon Eucalyptus Spray
  • Cutter Natural Spray
  • Cutter Skinsations  (7% DEET)
  • OFF! FamilyCare II (5% Picaridin)
  • OFF! FamilyCare III (5% DEET)
  • OFF! FamilyCare IV (7% DEET)

There are many other brands too, including Sawyer, Repel, and discounted store brands from CVS, Target, and Walgreens, etc.

Using Insect Repellents on Kids

Now that you have chosen your insect repellent, be sure to use it safely.

That means reading the label and following the instructions carefully, being sure to:

  • only apply the proper amount of insect repellent to exposed skin or clothing
  • avoid applying insect repellent near your child’s eyes and mouth, on cuts, irritated skin, or under your child’s clothing
  • wash off the insect repellent when you return indoors
  • avoid spraying insect repellent inside your home or car, directly on your child’s face (apply to your own hands and then rub it on their face) and hands (they might rub their eyes or put their hands in their mouth), or allowing them to spray it on themselves
  • instead of insect repellent, consider using mosquito netting to cover your infant’s stroller or carrier when outside, and especially when in high risk parts of the world, using insecticide treated bed nets

It can also help to mosquito-proof your home and work to control mosquitoes and ticks where your child plays. And of course, have your child cover up and dress to avoid getting bit when possible, with long socks and clothing that covers their arms and legs.

Facts About Insect Repellents for Kids

Other things to know about insect repellents for kids include that:

  • Protect times can be different for protection against mosquitoes vs ticks.
  • IR3535, also known as Insect Repellent 3535, is a synthetic biopesticide (ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate). It was once only found in Avon Skin So Soft products, but can now be found in other brands too.
  • It is the chemical in oil of lemon eucalyptus, PMD or para-menthane-3,8-diol, that gives it pesticidal properties.
  • Avoid combination sunscreen/insect repellent products. Use separate products instead, applying the sunscreen first and reapplying the sunscreen every few hours as necessary. Since you don’t typically reapply insect repellents (unless you are going to be outside for a really long time), if your child starts  to get bitten, next time, you will likely need to consider using an insect repellent with a different active ingredient or at least one with a stronger concentration that might last longer.
  • Although available, insect repellent lotions are often harder to find in stores.
  • In addition more standard insect repellents, permethrin treated clothing is available.
  • Don’t be fooled by natural insect repellents that ‘smell amazing’ and say that they aren’t “full of chemicals.” They likely contain para-menthane-3,8-diol, ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate, or other chemicals. While they are DEET-free and some may be natural, they aren’t free of chemicals. And keep in mind that many natural insect repellents are non-EPA registered.
  • Call poison control (1-800-222-1222) if your child gets the insect repellent in their mouth or eyes or has a reaction.

Although they are the best protection, since insect repellents aren’t perfect, you should also learn how to remove ticks and the symptoms of mosquito and tickborne diseases.

Yet more protection options include the Dengue vaccine (not available in the US yet though) and preventative medications for malaria.

What to Know About Insect Repellents for Kids

When used properly, insect repellents are safe and effective and the best way to help your kids avoid getting eaten up by mosquitoes, chiggers, ticks and other things that like to bite kids.

More About Insect Repellents for Kids

Treating Hard to Control Poison Ivy

Poison ivy growing on a tree, ready to give your kids a rash.
It is better to learn to avoid poison ivy than to get a rash and have to get it treated. Photo by Vincent Iannelli, MD

It is usually not hard to identify a child with a poison ivy rash, especially a classic case of poison ivy, which might include a child with a known exposure to poison ivy after a camping trip, hike in the woods, or day at the lake, who a few days later develops a red, itchy rash all over his body.

The problem is that many parents don’t remember the “known exposure,” especially if it is the child’s first poison ivy rash.

The Poison Ivy Rash

Aerial roots on the stems can help you identify poison ivy, and yes, they can trigger a rash too.
Aerial roots on the stems can help you identify poison ivy, and yes, they can trigger a rash too. Photo by Vincent Iannelli, MD

After exposure to the leaves, stems, or roots of a poison ivy plant, children develop symptoms of poison ivy within 8 hours to a week or so, including:

  • an intensely itchy rash
  • red bumps that often may be in a straight line or streaks, from where the poison ivy plant had contact with your child’s skin
  • a rash that appears to spread, mostly because the rash appears at different times depending on how big or small a dose of the urushiol oil that area of skin got, with the rash appearing first on the spots that got exposed the most
  • vesicles and blisters that are filled with fluid

Keep in mind that children exposed to poison sumac and poison oak, other members of the genus Rhus or Toxicodendron, can get these same symptoms that we generically refer to as poison ivy symptoms.

(Using medical terminology, these children develop rhus dermatitis or allergic contact dermatitis, an intensely pruritic, linear, erythematous, papulovesicular rash after exposure to the urushiol oil in poison ivy.)

Treating Poison Ivy

It seems like everyone has their favorite treatments for poison ivy.

These basic treatments for poison ivy are usually going to help control the itch, and might include:

  • oral antihistamines (Benadryl or Atarax)
  • modified Burow’s Solution
  • Calamine lotion
  • Aveeno oatmeal baths
  • over-the-counter or prescription topical steroid creams

Is that all you need?

While these treatments might provide temporary relief and might be enough for very mild reactions, those with more moderate or severe symptoms will likely require systemic steroids.

Does that mean a steroid shot?

That might be what your doctor suggests or what some parents request, but keep in mind that it might wear off too soon, leading your child’s poison ivy symptoms to flare up again (rebound rash). That’s why most experts recommend a longer, tapering course of oral steroids instead of a single shot. A steroid dose pack is also often avoided as treatment for poison ivy, as the dose might be too low and it typically doesn’t last long enough.

Since the poison ivy rash might not go away for as long as three weeks, getting treated with systemic steroids can be an especially good idea if you have a moderate or severe case.

Avoiding Poison Ivy

A classic poison ivy plant in the 'leaves of three, let it be' configuration.
A classic poison ivy plant in the ‘leaves of three, let it be’ configuration. Photo by Vincent Iannelli, MD

Since very few people are actually immune to poison ivy, it is best to learn to avoid getting exposed to it in the first place.

You can start with the old adage, ‘leaves of three, let it be,’ but you really have to look at a lot pictures of poison ivy to get good at avoiding it. And to be safe, learn to avoid the places where poison ivy grows – along tree lines, around lakes and ponds, along trails, and in wooden or wild areas, etc.

Or at least do your best to avoid the plants by wearing long pants, a shirt with long sleeves, and gloves, etc., to avoid skin contact even if you are around poison ivy while hiking, playing along a creek, or fishing near a lake.

What can you do if you have been exposed to poison ivy? If you can rinse the exposed area with rubbing alcohol, like within 10 minutes, then you might avoid a reaction. After that, the oil in poison ivy, urushiol, will likely be stuck and trigger a rash. Of course, you don’t want to be applying rubbing alcohol to a large area of your child’s skin though or allow your child to use it if they will be unsupervised. And be sure to wash it off afterwards.

Commercial products might be more useful (and safer) to help you avoid poison ivy reactions and  include:

  • Ivy Block – was an over-the-counter barrier lotion that was supposed to prevent poison ivy, but unfortunately, it isn’t being made anymore
  • Tecnu Original Outdoor Skin Cleanser
  • Tecnu Extreme Poison Ivy & Oak Scrub
  • Zanfel Poison Ivy Wash

Although it is best to use the products immediately, within 10 to 30 minutes after exposure to poison ivy, if used anytime before you get a rash, you might decrease your symptoms. And if you get lucky, you might not get any symptoms at all.

Myths and Facts About Poison Ivy

Would you recognize this is poison ivy? It will still trigger a rash...
Would you recognize this as poison ivy? It will still trigger a rash… Photo by Vincent Iannelli, MD

As common as poison ivy is, there are many myths and misconceptions about it, including that:

  • poison ivy is contagious (false) – scratching doesn’t spread poison ivy, although it may seem that way as the rash spreads to new areas over the days and weeks after being exposed. That’s only because some areas of a child’s skin that had less exposure to the poison ivy plant than others will get the rash later, not that they are continuing to spread it by scratching.
  • you can get poison ivy from your dog (true) – although not as common as direct contact with a plant, indirect contact, like if you touch the oil from poison ivy that got on your dog’s fur or on your clothing, could trigger a reaction
  • it is easy to spot poison ivy (false) – poison ivy plants are often found growing among other plants, can trigger reactions year round, even when they don’t have any leaves (the stems  and roots can trigger a reaction too), and even dead poison plants can trigger a reaction, which can make it extremely hard to simply use the ‘leaves of three, let it me’ advice to spot plants.
  • birds help spread poison ivy (true) – ever wonder why poison plants grow along tree lines? Birds and small mammals eat the poison ivy berries and then poop out the seeds, allowing new plants to grow wherever the birds commonly hang out, including tree lines, around lakes and ponds, and your garden.
  • it’s easy to get rid of poison ivy plants (false) – poison ivy plants are very persistent and can be hard to get rid of
  • goats like to eat poison ivy (true) – well, goats like to eat everything, but a goat in your yard will likely eat up all of the poison ivy plants.
  • it is easy to identify poison ivy (false) – many other plants mimic the ‘leaves of three, let it be’ pattern, like Virginia creeper and Boxelder
  • burning poison ivy plants is dangerous (true) – the oil that triggers the poison ivy rash can vaporize, meaning exposure to the smoke from a burning plant can cause severe reactions.

And remember that your pediatrician can be helpful if you think your child has poison ivy. (true)

What To Know About Hard to Control Poison Ivy

While poison ivy isn’t contagious, it can make you miserable if you don’t learn to avoid it and treat poison ivy rashes properly with anti-itch creams and steroids.

More About Hard to Control Poison Ivy

Treating Hard To Control Eczema

Eczema or atopic dermatitis very commonly affects kids.

Few conditions are as frustrating for parents and pediatricians, because even when properly treated, you can expect eczema to flare up from time to time after it gets better. Eczema is even worse when it isn’t properly treated though.

What Triggers Your Child’s Eczema?

Like other things that are supposed to have triggers, like asthma and migraines, it is often hard to figure out what triggers a child’s eczema.

Dress in soft, breathable clothing and avoid itchy fabrics like wool, that can further irritate your eczema.

National Eczema Association

Common eczema triggers to avoid might include:

  • harsh soaps and cleansers, shampoos, and body washes, including those with fragrances
  • food allergy triggers – milk and eggs
  • environmental allergy triggers – dust mites and animal dander
  • low humidity
  • temperature extremes – either getting too hot or too cold
  • skin infections

And anything else that might make your child’s skin dry and itchy.

Eczema Treatments for Kids

Although there is no cure for eczema, it is usually possible to control your child’s eczema, including getting rid of all or most of her eczema rash and decreasing how often your child has eczema flares.

These basic treatments include:

  • using lukewarm water for daily baths and showers
  • using a soap substitute or cleanser that is unscented, fragrance-free, and dye-free – Cetaphil, Dove, Aveeno
  • using a tar-based shampoo if your child’s scalp is red and itchy – T-Gel
  • daily use of moisturizers, especially within a few minutes of taking a bath or shower (soak and seal therapy)
  • prompt use of a moderate strength prescription topical steroid (like traimcinolone acetonide 0.1% cream) as soon as your child has a flare, with red, rough itchy skin
  • as needed use of oral antihistamines to help control itching during flares – Benadryl
  • keeping your child’s finger nails short to minimize damage from scratching

A written eczema action plan can make sure that you understand how and when to do each of these treatments.

Best Moisturizers for Eczema

Everyone seems to have their favorite eczema moisturizer.

Which is best?

The best moisturizer is probably the one that your child will use and which works to keep his skin from getting dry. In general though, ointments are better than creams, which are better than lotions.

Some favorites include Aquaphor (too thick and greasy for some people), Vanicream Moisturizing Skin Cream, CeraVe Moisturizing Cream, Eucerin Original, and Cetaphil Moisturizing Cream.

Whichever moisturizer you use, be sure to apply it to your child’s skin within three minutes of his soaking in a bath or shower so that you can seal in the moisture (soak and seal therapy).

Treating Hard To Control Eczema

What to do you do when basic treatments aren’t working?

Although a pediatric dermatologist can evaluate your child to see if she needs a systemic medication, phototherapy, or other treatment, most kids with hard to control eczema simply need more education to make sure they are using standard treatments correctly.

  • Is your child bathing correctly?
  • Are you putting on the right moisturizer, using enough moisturizer, and using it often enough?
  • Is your soap too harsh?
  • Are you afraid to use a topical steroid?
  • Are you applying a steroid over a moisturizer, which can make it less effective?
  • Could you be doing more to avoid triggers?
  • Could stress be triggering your child’s eczema?

What’s next?

A Staph skin infection might be a problem. In addition to oral antibiotics, weekly dilute bleach baths might help if this is an issue for your child.

Your child with hard to control eczema might also benefit from:

  • using more moisturizer over his entire body – don’t spot treat the areas that you think are a problem
  • using a thicker moisturizer – put your jar of Aquaphor in the freezer or refrigerator if your child doesn’t typically like using a moisturizer or complains that it stings or burns
  • a prescription barrier cream to control itching – Atopiclair, MimyX
  • a prescription topical Clacineurin Inhibitors – Elidel, Protopic
  • a 504 school plan
  • changing your laundry routine – wash new clothes, use mild, dye free laundry detergent and rinse twice after washing
  • using sunscreen and rinsing after swimming in a pool or excessive sweating, applying a moisturizing quickly afterwards
  • allergy testing to better identify triggers

You might also talk to your pediatrician about wet wrap therapy. With this treatment, you have your child take a bath or shower, applying a topical steroid to the affected areas and a generous amount of moisturizer to the rest of your child’s skin. Next, cover the area in wet cotton clothing or a wet dressing, and lastly, dress your child in dry cotton clothing, removing them all once the clothing dries out. You can then repeat the whole process or start again the next night, continuing until your child’s eczema is under better control.

Wrap therapy can be done with wet pajamas if you have to cover a big area, tube socks with the end cut off if you just have to do his arms, or cotton gloves for hard to control hand eczema. Some experts even recommend using a chilled wet dressing, putting the wet clothes in the refrigerator for a short time before using them on your child.

If you are at the point of considering wet wrap therapy, seeing a pediatric dermatologist might also be a good idea.

What To Know About Treating Hard To Control Eczema

While eczema can usually be controlled and most kids eventually outgrow having eczema, you may need some help to really understand how to really manage your child’s eczema effectively.

More Information About Treating Hard To Control Eczema