How to hold your own against colds
This time of year presents plenty of opportunities for viruses to spread. Chilly
weather keeps more of us indoors at the same time, and the holiday season brings
together family members of all ages. Colds and flu (influenza) can occur anytime,
but appear mostly in the fall and winter.
For most people, viral respiratory illnesses are usually self-limited and last only a few days. But along with making millions of us feel lousy every year, colds and flu can cause serious problems and can even be deadly. The flu leads to more than 100,000 hospitalizations each year and about 20,000 deaths, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Death rates are highest for people aged 65 and up and for those with medical conditions that put them at increased risk for flu complications. (Also see "Keeping
Up with Flu Shots".)
Here are tips to ward off colds and flu and to ease the misery if they strike:
Lowering the Chance of Infection
Get a flu shot.
A vaccine against colds hasn't been developed because colds can be caused by
many types of viruses. But the flu vaccine remains the best way to prevent and
control the flu.
Influenza viruses are classified
as types A, B, or C. Type A and B
viruses are the most serious because
they are the ones most often responsible
for cases of the flu and all of its
complications. Type C viruses are
mostly associated with cold symptoms.
Flu season in the United States
runs from November to April. October
to November is the usual vaccination
time for most people. "But you
can also get good results when the
vaccine is used in December and January,
even if influenza is already starting
to spread through a community,"
says Roland A. Levandowski, M.D.,
a medical officer and virologist
in the Food and Drug Administration's
Center for Biologics Evaluation and
Research. We need a new flu shot
every year because the predominant
flu viruses change every year.
The protective effect of the vaccine starts working rapidly in people who have
been previously infected with flu viruses or have received a flu shot in the
past. Infection-fighting antibodies in the blood reach a peak about three weeks
after these people get the shot. But for some, such as children younger than
9 who haven't been previously vaccinated, two doses of the influenza vaccine
about a month apart are recommended for the first vaccination. In older people
and in those with chronic illnesses, the shot may not necessarily prevent the
flu, but can reduce the symptoms and risk of complications if you do get sick.
The flu vaccine is made of killed
virus and can't cause the flu. The
most common side effect is soreness
at the injection site. The flu shot
is not recommended for certain people,
including those allergic to eggs.
The viruses for flu vaccines are
grown in eggs.
Researchers continue to hold out
hope for a nasal spray flu vaccine,
which is still being tested. The
nasal spray vaccine may boost immunization
rates, especially for children, who
are most likely to spread the flu
virus. (For more on the flu vaccine,
Up with Flu Shots".)
Wash your hands.
Both colds and flu can be passed through coughing, sneezing, and touching surfaces
such as doorknobs and telephones. So it's wise to make a habit of washing your
hands and teach children to do the same. This helps you prevent spreading respiratory
infections and picking them up from someone else.
According to the American Society for Microbiology, a national survey found
that Americans were most likely to say they wash their hands after changing
a diaper and before handling food. Most, however, said they don't wash their
hands after coughing and sneezing.
The CDC recommends regular scrubbing of your hands with warm, soapy water for
about 15 seconds. Touching your nose, mouth, and eyes with contaminated hands
makes it easy for cold and flu viruses to enter the body. Others can become
ill by just coming in contact with someone who has become infected with a cold
or flu virus or who has come in contact with a contaminated area.
Limit exposure to infected people.
Sometimes people are infected with a virus and they don't know it because they
haven't experienced symptoms yet. If possible, avoid people who you know have
colds and flu. Keep infants away from crowds for the first few months of life.
"This is especially important for premature babies who may have underlying
abnormalities like lung disease and heart disease," says Larry Pickering,
M.D., a fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics and a pediatrician in Atlanta.
If keeping your distance is too difficult--say in the case of parents who can't
help but hold and kiss their sick kids--then, in addition to washing your hands
frequently, you can keep surfaces clean with a virus-killing disinfectant available
at the grocery store. A solution of 1 part bleach mixed with 10 parts water
also is effective in killing viruses.
Practice healthy habits.
Eating a balanced diet, getting enough sleep, and exercising can help the immune
system better fight off the germs that cause illness. Because smoking interferes
with the mechanisms that keep bacteria and debris out of the lungs, those who
use tobacco or who are exposed to secondhand smoke are more prone to respiratory
illnesses and more severe complications than nonsmokers.
If you've been feeling run down, some stress management might not be a bad
idea. David Skoner, M.D., chief of allergy and immunology at Children's Hospital
in Pittsburgh, has studied the effects of chronic stress on susceptibility to
cold and flu infections. "We've found that people who experience more stress
are more likely to get sick and experience worse symptoms," he says. Examples
of chronic stress are personal crises such as going through a divorce or feeling
stuck in a bad job.
"Research has also shown that the more social you are, the less likely
you are to get sick," Skoner says. It could be because having more social
contacts and support is less stressful than keeping to yourself, he says.
Safe Relief from Symptoms
Drink up and rest.
Fluids such as water, juice, soup, and non-caffeinated beverages can help loosen
mucus, keep you hydrated, and make you feel better, especially if you have a
fever. Alcohol and drinks containing caffeine may have a dehydrating effect.
To help others stay healthy, limit your exposure to them and promptly throw
out tissues rather than letting them pile up on your nightstand.
Gargling with salt water can help relieve a sore throat. A cool-mist humidifier,
which breaks water into droplets and releases them into the air, may help relieve
stuffy noses. Keep the humidifier clean to avoid a buildup of mold, which could
be harmful if inhaled. Saline nasal drops and suctioning with a bulb syringe
can help infants and small children breathe better. But be gentle because aggravating
the nasal passages could make swelling worse. Also, dress sick children comfortably--like
you would dress yourself, Pickering says. "Some parents bundle them up
if they have a fever, but that can make it worse."
Choose over-the-counter (OTC) medicines that are appropriate for your symptoms.
With all the choices on the shelves, it can be hard to know what medicine to
pick. It may seem easier to grab a multi-symptom medicine that promises to take
care of everything, but it's better to take a product specific to your symptoms,
says Jeffrey Delafuente, a professor and director of geriatric programs at Virginia
Commonwealth University's School of Pharmacy.
"If your only problem is a runny nose, why take a cough suppressant?"
he says. Taking medicine for symptoms you don't have may not be harmful, he
adds, but it unnecessarily exposes you to medicine and the accompanying side
effects. "Multi-symptom medicines can be useful if you truly have many
If you want to unclog a stuffy nose, then nasal decongestants may help. Cough
suppressants quiet coughs; expectorants loosen mucus so you can cough it up;
antihistamines help stop a runny nose and sneezing; and pain relievers such
as acetaminophen can ease fever, headaches, and minor aches. Check with a pediatrician
or your family physician first before treating children suffering from cold
and flu symptoms with medicine.
Don't give aspirin or aspirin-containing medicines to children and teen-agers.
Children and teen-agers suffering from flu-like symptoms, chickenpox and other
viral illnesses shouldn't take aspirin because of the possibility of Reye's
syndrome. Some medicine labels may refer to aspirin as salicylate or salicylic
acid. Be sure to educate teen-agers, who may take OTC medicines without their
Children with Reye's syndrome start vomiting and become drowsy within a few
days of becoming sick. The disorder, which is now rare, can affect all body
organs and lead to brain damage and death. Reye's syndrome occurs almost exclusively
in children 4 to 12 years of age and is rare in adults, Pickering says.
Read OTC medicine labels carefully and follow directions.
Use the dosing device that comes with the medicine and don't exceed recommended
dosages or length of use. Taking a nasal spray for too long during a cold could
result in an even stuffier nose, for example. Always check with a doctor first
if the correct dose for a child isn't listed on a label and before giving a
child more than one medicine at a time.
Delafuente says he tells older people, who often take multiple medications,
to check with a doctor or pharmacist before taking a new OTC cough and cold
medicine because some can worsen underlying health problems, such as high blood
pressure or heart disease. Decongestants can speed up heart rate, for example,
and antihistamines can cause urinary retention in men with prostate problems.
For both young and old, antihistamines can make you drowsy, which could affect
Be sure to check expiration dates and get rid of old medicine. The FDA has
warned consumers against using OTC and prescription drug products containing
phenylpropanolamine because the ingredient has been associated with an increased
risk of hemorrhagic stroke (bleeding in the brain). This ingredient was commonly
used as a decongestant in OTC and prescription cough and cold medicines before
Be careful not to double up on ingredients.
If you take more than one medication at a time, be careful not to duplicate
ingredients, says Marina Chang, a pharmacist with the FDA's Center for Drug
Evaluation and Research. "Look at the active ingredients of every medicine
you take," she says.
For example, you don't want to accidentally take two different medicines that
both contain acetaminophen. The same goes for taking acetaminophen tablets to
relieve pain while also taking a cough medicine containing acetaminophen. Too
much of this drug can result in liver damage.
Jon Temte, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor of family medicine at the University
of Wisconsin Medical School, recalls a young woman who came in complaining of
a racing heartbeat and anxiousness. He discovered her symptoms occurred because
she had taken two different products, both containing a decongestant.
Facts About Flu Drugs
Relenza (zanamivir) and Tamiflu
(oseltamivir), both approved for
use in 1999, are to treat uncomplicated
cases of influenza caused by types
A and B flu virus. Tamiflu also is
approved for preventive use, while
Relenza is approved only for treatment.
Two older drugs, amantadine and rimantadine,
which are sold under the trade names
Symmetrel and Flumadine respectively,
are approved for the treatment and
prevention of Type A influenza.
Talk with your health-care provider about any use of these drugs in children.
The doses and approved ages are different for each. Because some of the drugs'
side effects can be serious and because viruses may become resistant when antiviral
drugs are used indiscriminately, the FDA recommends that decisions to use these
drugs be based on individual evaluations of risk and benefit.
Relenza, which is orally inhaled as a dry powder with a device known as a Diskhaler,
can cause wheezing or serious breathing problems, and is generally not recommended
for patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and other airway
Common side effects of Tamiflu, which comes in pill and liquid form, include
nausea and vomiting. Both amantadine and rimantadine can cause gastrointestinal
side effects and central nervous system changes such as nervousness and difficulty
concentrating. Other side effects that can occur are mentioned in the drugs'
Other important flu drug facts:
- Antiviral drugs are not meant
to take the place of a flu shot.
The flu shot remains the best way
to protect yourself. The drugs
are sometimes used as a backup
to the vaccine in special situations,
such as to control a flu outbreak.
- The treatment effect of these
drugs is modest. They won't
make you instantly better, but
can help shorten the time the flu
lasts by about a day. And use of
flu drugs does not eliminate the
risk of flu complications.
- The drugs are meant to be
taken within the first two days
you experience flu symptoms. That
means if you arrive at the doctor's
office on Day 5 asking for a flu
drug, you'll be too late. By that
time, uncomplicated flu usually
starts to get better on its own,
and people who develop complications
are likely to need other treatment.
- Flu drugs don't influence
bacterial infections or other illnesses
that may look like the flu.
It's important to talk with your
health-care provider if you are
being treated with an antiviral
drug but aren't getting better
or if you experience new symptoms.
Cold and Flu Symptoms
People who get the flu usually know the exact day that it hit, whereas a cold
tends to come on gradually. Both colds and flu cause inflammation of the mucous
membranes (found in the nose, throat and mouth). Symptoms for colds and flu
can be similar; both can cause a stuffy nose, sore throat, cough, and fever.
Symptoms generally last about a week or two.
Colds are usually distinguished by a runny nose and sneezing. Along with coming
on suddenly, the flu is more serious than a cold, lasts longer, and often leaves
you with a wiped-out feeling, a headache, chills, dry cough, and body aches.
Young children may also experience nausea and vomiting with flu, but what many
people call "stomach flu" is something different--probably gastroenteritis,
which is usually caused by other viruses, bacteria, and toxins.
When You Need a Doctor
Jerry Rogers, M.D., a family physician in Moorhead, Minn., says some patients
have asked him about taking an antibiotic early on, before their cold or flu
symptoms get bad. But antibiotics don't help viral illnesses. Using antibiotics
inappropriately only spreads antibiotic-resistant bacteria, making fewer drugs
effective for treating disease.
Most of the time, colds and flu simply have to run their course. "We don't
typically treat colds and flu unless they become complicated," Rogers says.
You usually don't need to call the doctor at the first signs of cold and flu,
but there are times when you should.
Doctors will look for and treat cold and flu complications such as bronchitis,
sinusitis, ear infections, and pneumonia--bacterial infections that may require
antibiotics. For some people, colds and flu can aggravate underlying medical
conditions like heart disease and asthma.
If you aren't getting any better after about a week or your symptoms worsen,
you should see a doctor. Your viral infection may have caused enough mucus build-up
to allow for a bacterial infection to occur. Signs of trouble might be a cough
that gets so bad it disrupts sleep, a fever that won't go down, increased shortness
of breath, and pain in the face because of a sinus infection (sinusitis). Another
warning signal is if after feeling better for a short time, you start to feel
worse and experience a high fever, chest pain, or notice a difference in the
mucus you're producing, such as a change from clear to thick, yellow-green mucus.
With children, be alert for high fevers and abnormal behavior--acting unusually
drowsy, refusing to eat, crying a lot, holding the ears or stomach, and wheezing.
Some people rely on vitamin C supplements, zinc lozenges, and echinacea to
prevent and treat cold and flu symptoms. These remedies may make some people
feel better. However, their health effects are unknown, says Linda Lambert,
a program officer with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
No conclusive data has shown that large doses of vitamin C prevent colds; they
may reduce the severity or duration of symptoms, but there is no definitive
evidence. And the jury is still out on zinc. "There are about an equal
number of studies that say zinc helps as there are studies that say it doesn't,"
As for echinacea, "studies have been done of echinacea for preventing
or treating colds and flu, but these studies were not rigorous or definitive
and the products tested were diverse," according to a written statement
from Stephen Straus, M.D., director of the National Center for Complementary
and Alternative Medicine, part of the National Institutes of Health. "These
studies at best suggest that echinacea may be beneficial in the early treatment
of colds and flu, but does not help prevent them."
Always tell your doctor about any supplements or herbal remedies you use, and
don't overdo it. For example, taking too much vitamin C can cause diarrhea.
Keeping Up With Flu Shots
In preparation for possible delays
with the 2001 flu vaccine supply,
the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC) encouraged health-care
providers to target doses of flu
vaccine to high-risk groups and health-care
workers in September and October.
People age 6 months and up who are not considered at high risk should seek
the vaccine as it is available, in November or later. Children under 9 need
two doses of vaccine separated by at least one month if they haven't previously
had a flu shot.
A recent CDC study shows that while flu vaccination rates increased during
the past decade, rates may be leveling off, and racial gaps persist. In 1999,
69 percent of whites age 65 and over reported getting a flu shot, compared with
59 percent of Hispanics, and 48 percent of African Americans. Differences in
access to care and socioeconomic status don't appear to explain the gap, says
James Singleton with the CDC's National Immunization Program. The CDC is planning
a series of interviews, surveys, and other research over the next year to uncover
the key factors, Singleton says.
Visit the CDC's influenza web site at www.cdc.gov/nip/flu/.
Unvaccinated high-risk persons,
health-care workers, those living
with high-risk people, and all people
ages 50 and older should try to be
vaccinated by November, and should
continue to seek influenza vaccine
in December or later if necessary.
Here are the primary target groups for annual flu vaccination:
People at increased risk for complications from the flu, including
- people 65 and older
- residents of nursing homes and other facilities that house people who have
chronic medical conditions such as diabetes, asthma, and heart disease
- adults and children who have chronic pulmonary or cardiovascular disorders,
- adults and children who have required regular medical follow-up or hospitalization
during the preceding year because of chronic metabolic diseases (including
diabetes), kidney dysfunction, disorders caused by hemoglobin abnormalities,
or a weakened immune system, including immunosuppression caused by medications
or the virus that causes AIDS
- children and teen-agers (ages 6 months to 18 years) who are receiving long-term
aspirin therapy, and therefore might be at risk for developing Reye's syndrome
- women who will be in the second or third trimester of pregnancy during
the flu season
People who can transmit influenza to those at high risk
- physicians, nurses, and other personnel in hospital and outpatient care
settings, including emergency response workers
- employees of nursing homes and chronic-care facilities who have contact
with patients or residents
- employees of assisted living and other residences for persons in high-risk
- persons who provide home care to persons in groups at high risk
- household members (including children) of people in groups at high risk
People ages 50-64 because this group has increased prevalence of high-risk
Source: Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices
by Michelle Meadows, a staff writer for FDA Consumer.
Publication No. (FDA) 01-9022
originally appeared in the November-December
2001 FDA Consumer.
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